the News thats Fit to Float..
Customs or..."Like old communist Russia?"
as of Oct 07
In obvious reaction to
TCP coverage, Australian Customs has been in a panic to mend
some of the public relations damage accrued as a result of their
persecution of entering yachts. Some of the most onerous provisions
of the rules are no longer being enforced, as if they no longer
exist? Their web site has been reconstructed to answer some of
the criticism of it's lack of usefulness to a cruising yacht.
Many of the numerous errors in the web site, pointed out below,
have been fixed, deleted or disguised.
I have taken the unusual step of
posting this story to an HTML page prior to print as a service
to the cruising community. This can be seen in context in the
paper soon, see recent editions and look for the PDF of TCP #
23. I want all cruisers entering Australia to have an idea of
what recption they may recieve and what precautions should be
taken. Whilst I have added some information at the end, these
are the words of the sailors involved.
John Hayward at left
and Bram on the right with Saluut.
Yachtsman Ashamed to be Australian.
By John Hayward, SY Interlude
On Friday (November 10th) I sat through a court case and came
out of it ashamed to be Australian. In the past I've always felt
proud to be an Aussie. I've cheered on the Aussies all my life
and was honoured to represent Australia in my sport of sailing
on several occasions. However on Friday I felt helpless.
Bram and his wife Magda, an elderly Dutch couple had been
enjoying the same hospitality as we had whilst sailing on their
retirement cruise around the world
.until they reached Australia.
They made the usual radio contact with the officials as they
approached the Port of Brisbane, after a rough, thirteen day
voyage from New Zealand. Customs officials took their details
and directed them to the quarantine dock for yachts. Everything
seemed to be routine. On arrival at the dock, they passed Quarantine
inspection and had their passports and visas ready for the Customs.
However the Customs officers 'greeted' them on board by reading
Bram his rights! Bram was confused. 'What have I done?' he asked.
He was then told that Australia had recently (June 2006) introduced
new laws making it compulsory that aircraft and shipping entering
Australia must give between four and ten days notice of their
Perhaps this Law was drawn up with commercial ships and airlines
in mind where crew and passenger lists can be forwarded as matter
of course, to give Customs and immigration time to do preliminary
anti-terrorist checks on the vast number of tourists etc traveling
into Australia. However for this time frame to apply to private
vessels such as cruising yachts, with two or maybe three persons
on board, is ludicrous. In all thirty countries we had visited
on our recent circumnavigation, we had not had to give more than
the usual VHF radio contact with the officials as we approached
a recognized Port of Entry. Even if a yacht skipper was aware
of this unusual Australian requirement in most cases the skipper
would not be able give notice as required 'by fax, telephone
or email' between four and ten days before arrival because, a)
The voyage takes an indeterminate time due to the weather conditions
and from most countries this would be more than ten days, and
b) most cruising yachts do not have fax, telephone or email facilities
on board, in fact many yachts have nothing more than line-of-sight
VHF radio communications which is quite adequate in nearly all
Fortunately for me I had heard of this new law by word of
mouth from other Aussie cruisers in New Caledonia and had been
able to comply, as it took us only six days to sail from New
Caledonia, otherwise our welcome home after five years would
not have been so joyous.
However Bram had been in New Zealand and had heard nothing
of this new law. He had on board a recognized world cruising
guide book which he had purchased before he had left the Netherlands
and had read the relevant Procedures on Arrival in Australia.
He logically believed that VHF radio contact would be sufficient
to give the required 'three hours' notice which his guide stated.
In fact he announced his arrival twelve hours before sailing
across Moreton Bay to tie up at the Quarantine dock. It is interesting
that the Customs official who Bram and his crew had spoken on
two occasions, twelve hours before did not come back after checking.
He could have been warned of the new requirement and so given
the choice of returning to sea. In fact when I questioned a Customs
official about this unusual requirement on our arrival, I was
told that 'offending yachts usually get a warning'.
However, Bram was treated like a criminal. He was asked to
go to the Customs office for a recorded interview by two customs
officers and told that charges may or may not be made. He later
received notice that he had to appear in court to face not one
but two charges: one that he had failed to give notice of the
arrival of his yacht, and the other that he had failed to give
notice of the arrival of his crew. The maximum penalty for each
breach was $6 600! Bram and his wife now had to hire the services
of a barrister and spend the next three weeks agonizing over
the prospects of facing criminal charges in a foreign country
and as an elderly retired couple having their savings decimated.
I could well imagine how an Australian couple, spending their
retirement cruising the world would feel in the same predicament
in some foreign country and not having a good grasp of the language
in that country. We had visited only two English speaking countries.
In court, the Magistrate listened to both sides of the case.
Bram's young barrister had convinced Bram to plead Guilty of
the charges and hope for a warning or a small fine. The magistrate
and the two lawyers debated the outcomes of only two other cases
tried under this new law and whether the defendant should have
a criminal record added to his name.
I believe the Magistrate was still ignorant of many facts
when he told Bram to rise and told him that he found him guilty
of the charges laid, and he would now have a criminal record,
but due to his age and the fact that English was not his first
language he was being very lenient in imposing a fine of just
$2000!, plus court costs of almost $1000, (plus barristers fees
Many people see yachtsmen as extremely rich people, sipping
champagne on the aft deck. However Bram and his wife are typical
of most 'yachties'. After retirement they decided to embark on
a lifetime dream. In reality it is a lifestyle of hardships,
frustrations and pleasures. A lifestyle often fraught with danger
and a project which takes most of their savings. They have been
five years away from home but still try to fly home once a year
to visit their children and grandchildren. Will they see their
grandchildren this year?
It is not surprising that more and more cruising yachts are
giving Australia a wide berth as they cruise around the world.
We of course proudly told the many yachtie friends we made of
our wonderful beaches, the wonders of the Great Barrier Reef,
the Red Centre and the hospitality of our people. Many are not
convinced, they fear regulations applying to yachts are becoming
unreasonably strict. Is Australia gaining a reputation like old
Yachties also point to the dangers of crocodiles in our northern
cruising waters, and many of the most poisonous and dangerous
creatures of anywhere on earth. One wonders if our two legged
officials will be soon added to this list!
Magda of Saluut.
The following is an account by Bram
TRAPPED BY CUSTOMS
The Dutch sailing yacht Saluut came from New Zealand to Brisbane.
At arrival on the quarantine dock, customs boarded it and without
introducing them selves started to read the rights to the skipper.
The skipper was demanded to go to court. According to the law,
on the complaints against him a total fine of maximum $ 13200
was an option.
What did the skipper do wrong? Did he smuggle drugs or people
into Australia or did he pollute the Australia waters? No he
unintentionally did not report his arrival between 10 days and
96 hour in advance of arrival. Before leaving New Zealand the
skipper checked his cruising handbook, but according to Customs
he should have checked internet instead of a Handbook that is
not up date.
On two occasions before arrival (12 and 10 hours) the skipper
had contact with the Australian Customs. According to the Cruising
Handbook at least 3 hours is required. On both occasions, the
Customs did not inform him that, should he proceed, he was breaking
the rules instead he was directed to the quarantine dock.
At court the lawyer brought up that the very law passed the
parliament with the remark that it was specially made for fining
shipping and air companies. He also brought in that the skipper
had limited knowledge of English and not too much experience
with internet. But, while sitting with his head on his hand,
the judge announced these arguments not of relevance. Only the
fact that the skipper does live on a retirement pension did hold.
The judge came to his decision on basis of a similar case that
happened before and made the fine $500 less than it was for wealthy
Americans some months before.
Bobs note: The above letter from
John of Interlude with notes from Bram, surprised
me and I wondered what was going on here! It seemed odd enough
in fact to require verification or corroboration. I didn't have
to dig to get it. The first mention of the incident on a marina
pontoon got an immediate referral to one and a brief mention
on a web forum, another. Though there are differences in the
three (so far) reports, the common points are important to note.
In the case of American vessel SY Sohcahtoa, (AKA the rich
Americans)this is their largely unedited report. To insure
accuracy, course language and slang has been left in place.
The Harbor Control advised us to
stand off until morning when we could get the Coast Guard to
tow us in, so we floated around until 7am or so and then began
the cluster fuck. There was still the 20 knots of wind with a
pretty good wind wave and we wrangled and jostled around with
the big yellow coast guard cutter until they could heave a line
over to us and we got it attached to our burly anchor cleat.
The channel to Cairns goes straight up a river delta, so is about
200 feet wide and 15 feet deep with mud on both sides. And the
wind comes right down the middle, so we would have had to tack
about a hundred times to get up there, if we could make any progress
in the current. EVEN with those considerations it is still a
bit of a blow to the pride of a sailor to be towed in by the
Coast Guard when it is windy. Hey. . why don't you use
those big flappy sail thingys? We were towed to an anchorage
where the friendly customs Nazis showed up with 5 people and
a drug sniffing dog. We had unknowingly violated Australian customs
law by not notifying customs of our arrival 96 hours in advance.
So in turn we won the full crawl up your butt with a magnifying
glass customs treatment. This included a taped interview
with two customs agents regarding why I was such a negligent
ship's master. Our World Cruising Guide said that we needed to
give customs 3 hours notice (which we did). So after having all
of our cupboards emptied and the dog run through all of our stuff,
we had to explain that YES we could afford the boat and NO I
don't have any business card to PROVE that I used to work at
this obviously fictitious company Cypress MicroSystems.
We are currently under Customs Control and can't leave the Harbor.
. .which is easy since we can't leave the anchorage due to the
fact that we still have no engine. That and we have no battery
power left, so in the evening, we have romantic candlelight to
see by. All in all, we could be fined about $8000 Australian
dollars if they chose to prosecute us AND all of our new Fijian
injectors for our diesel are right now being rebuilt for the
second time in a month.
And then there was the trial
So, here is the detailed story about our little trip
to court in Australia.
Matt and I headed up to meet with the customs agent and the prosecuting
attorney (solicitor) at about 9am on the morning of September
7th. I didn't really think about it, but I realized in the morning
that I should wear nice clothes, since this is court. I rummaged
around the boat for a bit and finally found my "never use"
duffel bag that had a pair of "wrinkle free" khaki
pants in it. These pants had been crammed in a ball for over
a year and looked more like crumpled up news paper than business
casual wear. I tried to rub a wet towel on them to take some
wrinkles out (since we left the iron at home), but that didn't
really work, plus it kind of made it look like I hauled off and
whizzed all over myself. Then I also realized that my footwear
selection left a bit to be desired. I had a pair of well worn
sandals and a pair of ratty old Nikes that had last been worn
hiking to a waterfall in the Marquesas. I threw on the sandals
and put the Nikes in my backpack. . .just in case. Matt meanwhile
was going through ALL of his t-shirts trying to find one that
didn't have a stain. This proved to be an impossible task and
he chose one that was dark, and that had a stain on the side
that could be easily concealed by his arm.
We met Gary the customs guy (actually a very nice guy despite
the whole "pressing charges" thing) at the courthouse.
Matt couldn't bring his camera into the courthouse (we tried
for the website's sake), and had to check it at the front desk.
We had a quick meeting with the solicitor who presented the case
and recommended that we opt for the "plead guilty"
so that we can get it over with, instead of the "plead not-guilty"
and have to go to a real trial that would take lots and lots
of time. Matt and I talked it over, and decided that. . .well,
we WERE guilty, and let's just get this fucking thing over with.
I also asked the prosecutor if my footwear selection was acceptable,
and he just said that it was up to me. The sandals looked much
better than the dirty old Nikes, so I went with option A.
We were instructed to bow slightly to the Judge when we entered
the courtroom and then headed up to the Defendant side of the
big long table in front of the Judge's bench. After a bunch of
formalities and paper signing, we began our trial. The judge
had to order all the reporters out of the courtroom, because
she was going to be DAMNED if this turned into a media circus.
Anyways, we were quite surprised when right out of the gate the
solicitor started talking about 'terrorists' and 'living in a
post-911 world'. . really driving the point home about the need
for strict customs enforcement. We were hoping that this wasn't
going to end up with us in the Australian version of Gitmo. He
then spoke about the 'book', and showed the judge the paragraph
in the Cruising Guide that said that the information was 5 years
old and that everyone should get the updates and not take anything
in the book seriously. I obviously did NOT pay much attention
to that warning prior to our entry into Australia. He also made
a VERY big deal about pointing out that all the up to date information
was on the customs website and that we ourselves had a website
detailing our trip, so we were Internet savvy and should have
been able to find this out ourselves. All of this I agreed with.
He did however kind of omit a few things when describing our
entry into Australia to make it seem to the judge that we were
amazingly and grossly negligent assholes. We even noticed that
the customs guy had a bunch of evidence bags (the big ones like
on C.S.I.) that had our immigration cards and our original entry
forms, as if somehow the whole thing was going to come down to
The solicitor had advised us previously
that it would be best to not speak in our own defense, but after
some of the omissions, I thought that we needed to be heard.
We had copies of all the documents that were given to the judge,
and they were all spread out before us just like the solicitor
had his. The judge asked if I had anything to say, and I stood
up and said yes. I had been jotting down notes during the whole
thing and tried to address some of the things that I thought
were either left out or exaggerated. Pretty much I tried to show
the judge that everything was a cascade down from the original
bad judgment of believing the Cruising Guide (which I fully admitted
to and said was a mistake). The judge was very friendly and was
also very forgiving of my ignorance of the formalities and customs
of Australian court. She asked some good questions, and even
stopped the solicitor a few times when he started comparing us
to other cases that really weren't the same. In the end, even
though the maximum could have been around $13000, the prosecution
asked for a $4000 fine plus about $1500 in court costs. The judge
decided that the law did need to be enforced and that we were
good people, so she fined us $2500 plus $900 in court costs.
We were able to pay the fine on the way out and I think Matt
even got R.E.I. points on his credit card. The solicitor and
the customs guy wouldn't pose for a picture outside of the 'ourtHouse'
even though Matt asked. After that, we had lunch, changed out
of the life draining khakis and had a beer or five. So now, any
boats that violate the 96 hour reporting law will have the case
of "Customs vs. Sohcahtoa" referenced.
Nov 21st. I've been a captive of the boat for the last few days
in Cocos Keeling. My visa ran out on the way here. I thought
we all had 1 year visas to match our cruising permit, but apparently
that was not the case. Jeff and Casey's visas didn't expire since
they flew back to the States and their 3 months started anew
when they came back. So when we arrived at Cocos Keeling we were
informed by radio that I was not allowed to go ashore and that
we'd only be given enough time to provision and then we had to
leave. So Australia struck again. Next stop is Rodriguez Island,
about 2037 miles west.
Here is an Ayn Rand quote from Atlas Shrugged
that describes how I sometimes feel about our experience in Australia:
"Did you really think that we want those laws to be observed?...
We want them broken... We're after power and we mean it... There's
no way to rule innocent men. The only power any government has
is the power to crack down on criminals. Well, when there aren't
enough criminals, one makes them. One declares so many things
to be a crime that it becomes impossible for men to live without
breaking laws. Who wants a nation of law-abiding citizens? What's
there in that for anyone? But just pass the kind of laws that
can neither be observed nor enforced nor objectively interpreted
- and you create a nation of law-breakers - and then you cash
in on guilt."
Bobs note: Our thanks to Matt,
Jeff and Casey for the use of their web text. For more information
on this subject or just to have a visit, they do have a fine
web site. See
To see what the Port Vila Presse newspaper
had to say about this case, click
here. (this link since removed )
Our next contributor is;
Sean Small is the skipper of Karma Winds that currently
lives in Cairns. I was alerted to his struggle with customs from
Brian Wilson of Schionning cat Hybreasail. When asked
Sean wrote a rather lengthy article for me that I just could
not fit in here in entirety. Next up is an edited version of
Customs officials arrived, stepped
aboard and stated that MY boat was now under their jurisdiction
and anything we say and do could be used against us in a court
of law. It was as if we were under arrest. What was this about
I wondered. We were instantly forbidden to leave the Cairns area,
a line drawn between Yorkeys Knob and Cape Grafton. This is an
area of approximately 20 square kilometers. We were basically
under house arrest.
The customs officials went on to question me as to why I hadn't
emailed them of our impending arrival within the 96hour time
line. Well firstly I don't have sail mail and Secondly
no one told me it was necessary to do this until one of the cruising
yachts passed a message to us on the Dim Dim net. The only yacht
in my vicinity that had sail mail was a German yacht named Baumi
who said they would. Outside communications from Samarai were
simply not possible. Thirdly, everywhere else on the planet the
customs agency's communicate to each other, as was the case when
I left Nelson New Zealand to cross the Tasman, the official himself
told me they contact Australia and inform them of our destination
and expected time of arrival.
Sean goes on to explain the difficulties in transmitting anything
out of Samarai due to non-existent internet access and third
world phone service. An option was to sail to Port Moresby where
facilities would be available but that would leave the craft
in a situation where they either had to sail to weather or make
for Torres strait where he believed the customs issues would
be even worse.
So I took the obvious choice
with safety in mind and hoped Baumi's email went through. It
did, Rainer had the confirmation on board. It was sent on the
21st, 6 days prior to our arrival and well within the required
time limit. The customs officials were using anything they could
to discredit and harass us. They stamped us in with the provision
that we did not leave.
The quarantine officers arrived with a black Labrador and made
sure he could get into every corner of the boat for a good sniff.
There was of course nothing to find. As he left Joli asked if
she could film the dog. I was not surprising that the answer
was no. They could gather evidence against us but we couldn't
gather any against them. Then another officer proceeded to go
through every locker. Most countries take fresh vegetables, eggs,
honey and meat. And he did, he also took flour, rice, dried milk,
peas and beans, bags of sugar and most surprisingly of all, our
supply of canned food. After he had thoroughly gone through the
boat he made me sign a declaration that there was nothing else
to declare that I had not declared on the list of declaration.
Bio fouling was to be there next target on yachts entering Australia.
Incoming yachts will be checked for any growth at a cost to the
yachty. If there was any fouling they would have to be hauled
out and decontaminated. Understandable that they want no foreign
water borne creatures introduced but the truth is that there
is little in the Louisiades that isn't here already. Eventually
it will become to expensive for the average yacht to come here,
it will virtually eliminate the cruising lifestyle as an option
for any but the rich, not to mention the fact that if you slip
up they have the power to confiscate your home. The yacht was
cleared from his perspective, the bill SO FAR was more than $300.
They hadn't finished with me yet though. The following day customs
called and wanted to come over to speak to me. My guess was they
wanted to reprimand me for not sending this ridiculous email,
how very wrong I was. On face value these officials are all very
nice, friendly, happy, easy going, in a sense a pleasure to be
involved with. However, and all to often there is a however,
Australia is a land of rules, for every rule there's a few clauses
and these have to be chased down with a dash of protocol. The
authorities on the sea have more power than even the police,
they'll take control of the boat on a whim, they can board at
their leisure and search the vessel, impose fines for an entire
book of reasons without even a good reason. On land the police
need a search warrant to enter a premises even of a known criminal,
not so on the sea and you need not do anything wrong.
The ultimatum was this. The boat had to be imported within a
week, no ifs or buts. This they said was generous they could
ask for it to be done within a day. I guess we weren't on PNG
time anymore, there is NO time now. Duty and GST added up to
Our hopes to sail around the world on
Karma Winds were annihilated in one fell swoop.
Day 3 and customs wanted to speak to me
again. This time it was about the email. I was served with a
section 64. I was made to sign it with no option. This meant
if I left the country and returned without sending an email in
the 96 hour time limit I would get an instant fine of up to $6600
without a trial. At this stage I hadn't been able to contact
Baumi and get the confirmation for the email but they later emailed
it to me. The customs either didn't have it together or more
likely they were harassing me.
Because Sean had been to Australia before, customs made him import
the boat immediately. Paying GST and duties and all costs involved
in valuation and documentation and stamp duties. He was also
required to have the boat inspected for pests as his was a timber
boat. This was done well after entry by an official he says came
from Brisbane to do the inspection.
Finally all the paperwork had
gone through so I paid the inevitable visit to the customs office
to pay the inevitable stamp duty. While I waited for the transaction
to be processed a senior official came forth with a rule book.
Once again he mentioned the lack of email notification. So I
pulled out the laptop and showed him the verification.
He was immediately on the offensive. This could have been
forged; you could have put in the dates yourself and altered
Why would I do that, then you'd bust me for fraud
I was amazed he couldn't just see they'd made a mistake. Surely
you can just check the numbers on the email.
He went through picking holes in the document on screen, why
don't you have the original, what are all these other numbers
Its just part of the hotmail forwarding details, you should
put a confirmation number in the email so you can back check
on your data base, and why don't you make it a read only document
as well. Once again I explained that it had been sent on
our behalf by another yacht as we didn't have sail mail.
This wouldn't stand up in court he stated
You people are impossible, what more do you want, why would
I bullshit something like this I have nothing to gain I'm just
trying to help you sort out the glitches in the system
I was starting to lose my cool.
There was no convincing him though, Swear again and I'll
have you thrown out of the building.
We were back to his doubts about the email. He told me I was
lucky he didn't fine me for non compliance and it was only because
they chose to enforce the importation that they let it go, and
then he added that they had some doubts about whether it had
been sent or not, or whether I'd been informed of the requirement.
As of last week any yacht that didn't give 96 hours notice was
immediately charged. Last week an offender was fined $3500 for
failing to send the email. In the end he said he'd follow it
up and that's all I could expect I guess. My own costs had now
already exceeded $3500 anyway but at least I had the freedom
to move around again, still the government would get more from
the registration and the tax received from the gas alterations,
but they'd have to wait as I was ticking up the credit on the
The tax had been paid and I'd never get it back but the truth
is they punished me for not sending an email that I had sent.
A few months later I heard from them about their checks with
Canberra. They agreed the email was sent but as we hadn't included
our passport numbers the section 64 notice still stood.
I must state here that there are many assertions and claims in
this material that I cannot substantiate at this time. It seems
unlikely though that all of these parties would be fabricating
their experiences. A retired Dutch couple having been half way
around the world. A high tech team of US sailors and finally
a Kiwi with a small boat purchased in the Caribbean and sailed
to Australia. All of these vessels have entered numerous other
On dealing with officials of Australian Customs it is well to
keep in mind that it now is apparently a very adversarial situation
and everything you say should be assumed to be used against you.
Criminal interrogation may be disguised as casual conversation
as made example by the manner in which SY Sahcahtoas web
site was used against them in court.
Whilst the only info that Customs regards
as bona fide is sourced from their web site, caution
should be exercised in that web sites can be easily changed from
day to day. Also if that info is accurate it proves that Australian
customs is singling out yachts. See www.customs.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=4224
On this page are a long row of buttons, one of which is
arrival info on yachts and another is a button for
arrival Information for Ships Masters. I have in
my wallet a "Recreational Ships Masters Licence." In
normal jargon acknowledged by the government a yacht does fall
into that catagory but if a skipper happened upon that info he/she
would be in trouble. It seems ships have a far less
burdensome regime to follow than a private Yacht.
Below is a quote from the customs web site pertaining to arriving
ships and persons on board
This just in, march 9th 07... Customs
have removed the button for "Information for ships Masters"
from their web page mentioned above. Below is the text that was
on their site in Febuary and prior.
The master or owner of a ship arriving in Australia is required
to provide Customs with a notice of the ship's impending arrival.
An impending arrival report can be made by document or sent electronically.
The impending arrival report must include the estimated date
of arrival of the ship at the first Australian port or any
subsequent port that the ship intends to visit.(editors emphasis)
The report is required 48 hours before the nominated date
of arrival indicated by the impending arrival report.
If the journey from the last port is likely to take less than
48 hours, the report is required 24 hours before the estimated
date of arrival.
Ships carrying cargo must communicate the impending arrival report,
actual arrival report and cargo reports to Customs electronically.
All goods intended to be unloaded from the ship or remaining
on board must be reported.
Ships not carrying cargo may report information manually or electronically
Shipping representatives or agents in Australia can also assist
on how to meet electronic reporting obligations determined by
Ships will be required to produce the following reports on arrival:
Ship's Report of Arrival
Passenger and Crew Report
Report of Ships Stores
Crew Effects declaration
There you have it. According to Customs
own web site shipping is treated with far greater ease than a
private craft. This was verified Febuary 4, 2007. But what does
customs say of this?
Customs Acting District manager at Cairns
Matt Townsend said;
""The obligations for yacht owners
and masters to report their movements are no different to those
for larger vessel and aircraft," Mr Townsend said."
The above quote is sourced from the
Port Vila Presse. (this link since removed) As you can see, providing
the quote is accurate, this puts customs into a situation where
they either must admit their web site information is unreliable
or they are lying to the public, to the media and it seems to
Just as in the Quarantine Bio-Fouling protocol (See
TCP # 16 or the web site "issues" page) there is an
inexplicable emphasis on private vessels whilst shipping has
it far easier even though shipping is a recognised bio-transfer
risk. Ostensively, this Customs protocol is an anti terrorist
device yet a large ship that would provide the better opportunity
is let off with little regulation by comparison.